Gerolamo Cardano (/m/03frw)

Gerolamo Cardano was an Italian mathematician, physician, astrologer, philosopher and gambler, best known as the earliest founder of probability and the establisher of the binomial coefficients and the binomial theorem, which was comprised in his book, Opus novum de proportionibus. He wrote more than 200 works on medicine, mathematics, physics, philosophy, religion, and music. Cardano partially invented and described several mechanical devices including the combination lock, the gimbal consisting of three concentric rings allowing a supported compass or gyroscope to rotate freely, and the Cardan shaft with universal joints, which allows the transmission of rotary motion at various angles and is used in vehicles to this day. He studied hypocycloids, published in de proportionibus 1570. The generating circles of these hypocycloids were later named Cardano circles or cardanic circles and were used for the construction of the first high-speed printing presses. Today, he is well-known for his achievements in algebra. Cardano was the first mathematician to make systematic use of numbers less than zero.
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